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THE SYSTEMS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

 -- Installment #2 of AQAL, the Next Generation --

 

Hugh & Amalia Kaye Martin

MartinHughCo@Gmail.com

 

 

AQAL, the Next Generation

THE FIVE INSTALLMENTS

AQAL, The Next Generation is a radical condensation of a projected two-semester, graduate-level course.  To make this complex model more accessible in this abbreviated form, we have divided the presentation into five installments:

{  Installment 1.  Overview of ADAPT.  ADAPT is a new model of Human Development – derived from Ken Wilber’s AQAL and his more extended Integral Operating System (IOS).  ADAPT is not just one theory among many that purport to describe Human Development.  Rather, as we shall show, ADAPT is the abstracted version of a universal model that people have used since ancient times to describe the progressions of human life.   In this installment, we present the essential features of the ADAPT Model – stripped of unnecessary explanations, elaborations, or justifications.  To illustrate how growth works, we explain only the first of the eight Systems (see Installment 2 for the others).  Lengthy explanations of certain concepts and methods have been omitted (see Installment 3 for the omissions).

{  Installment 2.  The Systems of Human Development.  A System of Human Development is a fundamental mechanism by which growth takes place -- a set of parameters that function together to move us along the Growth Continuum.  There are eight different Systems that contribute to Human Development – each with its own set of Dimensions, Participants, Processes, and modes of Togetherness.  In this Installment, we first discuss the components of the eight Systems as a whole.  Then we proceed through each System individually – describing the parameters and showing how they work together to produce particular kinds of growth.

{  Installment 3.  The Special Topics of ADAPT.  This installment presents the three explanatory sections that were omitted from Installments #1 and #2:
1) The Specific Processes of growth.  Since the dawn of time, the inventive human mind has discovered innumerable Methods by which specific kinds of growth can be implemented.  Those many Methods fall into 35 categories we call the Specific Processes. The Specific Processes are all the specialized Methods, Techniques, Therapies, practices, programs, activities, explorations, studies, and focused experiences that move us along particular parts of the Growth Continuum.  In this section, we discuss these 35 Processes – dividing them into seven Themes of emphasis, and giving examples from one Process within each Theme.
2) The Modes of Togetherness.  ‘Togetherness’ is the process by which our Life Journey is Guided and Orchestrated.  Guidance is the process of choosing and directing our activities through all the alternatives life offers us.  Orchestration is the process of weaving together, coordinating, and unifying all the Dimensions, Participants, and Processes that comprise the growth process.  In this section, we describe the 12 modes of Togetherness – four Collective modes, six Individual modes, and two Internal modes.  We grow best when we make use of all 12 modes.
3) Building the Next Generation of AQAL.  Building the next Integral Operating System will be a collaborative effort among numerous Integral theorists and practitioners.  In this section, we highlight the best features from our
ADAPT studies on IntegralWorld.net -- showing how these studies can be used to initiate dialog on this crucial topic.

{  Installment 4.  How ADAPT Improves on Wilber.  Ken Wilber’s model of Human Development is highly impressive and extremely valuable.  However, even his expanded IOS Model is not sufficiently inclusive, organized, balanced, differentiated, clear, consistent, unambiguous, explicit, complete, and correct.  If a model lacks any of these qualities, it is not adequate for the crucial, real-life applications of Integral Theory – for parenting, teaching, counseling, organizational consulting, academic research, or for orchestrating one’s own growth and self-improvement.  To substantiate these bold contentions, this installment makes meticulous parameter-by-parameter comparisons between Wilber’s IOS  and the ADAPT Model.  We find at least 75 positions where Wilber’s interpretation is most in doubt – and therefore most in need of re-consideration and revision.

{  Installment 5.  The ADAPT Slide Show.  For the uninitiated, the ADAPT Model can be hard to understand and assimilate.  This installment presents a comprehensive slideshow of the ADAPT Model, consisting of over 350 slides on PDF.  In this highly accessible format, the system is broken into bite-sized chunks -- with graphics to illustrate key points, and tables and charts to explain important information.  The slideshow is accompanied by the full text of AQAL, the Next Generation, with slideshow references in the left margin, so it is easy to follow along.

 

Downloads.  To download the entire AQAL, the Next Generation article, click here (Word document, 4.5 MB).

To see descriptions of other ADAPT studies by Hugh & Kaye Martin on IntegralWorld.net, click here. .

Permission to Use.  Permission is granted to use these studies and slides for any non-commercial purpose – so long as attribution is given, and so long as the authors are notified beforehand.

 

 

HUGH AND KAYE MARTIN

Hugh & Kaye Martin have contributed six book-length studies on their ADAPT Model to Integral World – several of which consistently rank among the Top 50 in IW’s readership rankings.  Hugh & Kaye are best qualified as integral practitioners and theorists because they have lead integral lives.  Both have richly diverse backgrounds in a multitude of fields: personal transformation, natural medicine & health, artistic & creative expression, teaching & education, societal change, natural & cultural environments, advanced academics, and marriage & family.  Hugh received his degrees at Swarthmore, Penn, and UC Berkeley.  Kaye received her degrees and certifications from Cal State Fullerton and Bauman College.  A detailed biographical background can be found at the back of Installment 1 and of the full study.

Please address you comments on this study directly to Hugh and Kaye Martin, MartinHughCo@Gmail.com.

 

 

THE SYSTEMS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
-- Installment 2 of AQAL, the Next Generation --

INTRODUCTION TO ADAPT

When taking an ocean journey, we need four things: a Map, a set of Voyagers, a Ship, and a Navigator/Captain.  Each of these elements addresses a basic requirement for our journey:

{  MapWhere are we going? 

{  VoyagersWho is going?

{  ShipWhat means will we use to get there?

{  Navigator/CaptainHow will our voyage be guided and orchestrated?

Likewise, in our journey of Human Growth, we need four Domains – Dimensions, Participants, Processes, and ‘Togetherness.’  As with the Journey, each of these Domains addresses a basic requirement for growth to take place:

{  DimensionsWhere does the growth take place?  The various areas of human experience where development occurs.

{  ParticipantsWho does the growing?  The aspects of Identity or Self that participate in the growth process.

{  ProcessesWhat means are used?  The methods and techniques by which growth takes place.

{  Together-nessHow is it implemented?  The modes by which the whole growth process is guided and orchestrated.

When all four Domains are complete and combined, they form an Integral model we call ADAPT – All Dimensions, All Participants, All Processes, Together.  In AQAL, the Next Generation, we describe this new ADAPT model – what it consists of, how it arose, how it improves on Ken Wilber’s own model, and why it should serve as the basis for a major upgrade of AQAL.

 

Installment #2: THE SYSTEMS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

A System of Human Development is a fundamental mechanism by which growth takes place -- a set of parameters that function together to move us along the Growth Continuum.  There are eight different Systems that contribute to Human Development – each with its own set of Dimensions, Participants, Processes, and modes of Togetherness. 

In this Installment, we first discuss the components of the eight Systems as a whole.  Then we proceed through each System individually – describing the parameters and showing how they work together to produce particular kinds of growth.  For each parameter, we indicate [in italics and brackets] the closest equivalent in Ken Wilber’s Integral Operating System (IOS), give an example from real life, and (where appropriate) illustrate with an analogy from the Life Journey Archetype.

The four Domains and eight Systems are illustrated by two circle diagrams: 

Appendix 5) ADAPT Circle Diagram.  Here we display all eight ADAPT Systems as one grand, multi-colored diagram – complete with eight concentric circles and four quadrants. 

Appendix 6) Ken Wilber’s ADAPT.  Here we display the same Circle Diagram, with Wilber’s parameters substituted for our own.  (Similarities between the two diagrams will show that Wilber’s IOS Model is actually a highly-developed version of ADAPT itself.)

 

THE SYSTEMS OF ADAPT

For a real-world journey, there are many different systems of transportation – highway systems, rail systems, airline systems, shipping systems, even stagecoach systems and pony express systems.  For instance, the shipping system includes all the ships, docks, routes, sailors, onshore personnel, and specialized technologies that make shipping possible. 

Likewise, progress from port to port in our Journey of Life is only possible because of highly specialized Systems of Growth.  In technical language, a System of Human Development is a fundamental mechanism by which growth takes place.  Put another way, a System is a set of Dimensions, Participants, Processes, and modes of Togetherness that function together to move us along the Growth Continuum. 

There are eight different Systems that contribute to Human Development – each with its own set of Dimensions, Participants, Processes, and modes of Togetherness:

System 1.    Individual Growth.  Growth that takes place in individual people.

System 2.    Collective Growth.  Growth that takes place in groups of people.

System 3.    Actualization Growth.  Growth for relatively healthy people.

System 4.    Restoration Growth.  Growth for people with ‘problems.’

System 5.    Evolution & Involution.  Growth in two Directions – Upwards & Outwards, or Downward & Inwards.

System 6.    Horizontal Growth.  Growth that occurs within a Stage.

System 7.    Perspective Growth.  Growth that occurs through shifting or broadening one’s Identity.

System 8.    Spiritual Growth.  Growth that occurs through Awakening to the Divine Presence.

In this section we first discuss the components of the eight Systems as a whole.  Then we proceed through each System individually – describing the parameters and showing how they work together to produce a particular kind of growth.  (As you read this section, you may wish to follow along on the ADAPT Circle Diagram, Appendix 4.)

 

SYSTEMS 1-8: THE ADAPT MODEL

[These summaries of Systems 1-8 are repeated from Installment 1 for continuity.]

The Domains of ADAPT

THE DIMENSIONS OF THE GROWTH CONTINUUM

Human Growth is the Journey we take across the turbulent seas and exotic lands of life.  The Growth Continuum is a Map of all the routes and destinations our Journey of growth can take.  The Dimensions are the coordinates that define different features of our Map. 

In technical language, Growth is the process of moving and progressing along the Growth Continuum. The Growth Continuum [Wilber’s Great Nest, Map, Morphogenic Field] is a Field of eight Dimensions.  The Dimensions are the parameters that describe the various areas in which growth takes place.  Ex: “When I grow as an Individual, much of my growth occurs as I progress along four Dimensions: I proceed through Stages (1) and Transitions (2) within several Arenas (3) in each of four Realms (4).

THE PARTICIPANTS IN THE GROWTH PROCESS

The Participants are the crew, passengers, and other Voyagers who take part in our Life Journey.  In technical language, the Participants are the seven aspects of Identity, or Self that partake in the growth process.  Ex: “In different aspects of my growth, I manifest different parts of my Identity: Sometimes my Experienced & Observed Self; sometimes my Individual or Collective Self; sometimes various Personae; sometimes my Shadow Self.”

THE PROCESSES OF GROWTH

 In our Life Journey, the Processes are the sailing Ships, and other means of conveyance, that carry us along the channels, coastlines, trade routes, and open seas of our growth.  In technical language, the Processes are all the Methods and Techniques that move us along the Growth Continuum.   There are eight General Processes and at least 35 Specific Processes.

The General Processes are the eight Processes that are always in effect whenever growth is taking place.  Ex: “Depending on which Dimensions and which Participants are engaging in my growth, I use various General Processes to grow and change: Sometimes Actualization or Restoration Growth; sometimes Horizontal or Collective Growth; sometimes just Awakening to a truth that was always there.”

The Specific Processes are all the particular Methods, Techniques, Therapies, practices, programs, activities, explorations, studies, and focused experiences that move us along particular parts of the Growth Continuum.  Ex: “When I was very young, I was especially influenced by Foundational Processes – like Natural Nutrition, Natural Medicine, and Nurturing & Bonding.  Now that I am beginning to make my way in the world, I make more use of Socio-Cultural Processes – like Skills, Responsibility, Enterprise, and Ethics.”

THE TOGETHERNESS OF ADAPT
(Guidance & Orchestration)

In our Life Journey, ‘Togetherness’ is the process of guiding and orchestrating our Voyage.  Guidance is the task of the Navigator – the process of directing our Ship and keeping our Voyage on course.  Orchestration is the responsibility of the Captain – the process of arranging and coordinating all elements of our Voyage to produce a smooth-running, successful adventure. 

In technical language, Guidance [Wilber’s Navigation] is the process of choosing and directing our activities through all the alternatives life offers us.  Orchestration [Wilber’s Integration] is the process of weaving together, coordinating, and unifying all the Dimensions, Participants, and Processes, and Orchestrators that comprise the growth process.  Ex: “My son hopes to go to a really fine college next year.  We guide him by helping him to compare colleges and make the right choice.  We orchestrate the admissions process by helping him coordinate all the applications, standardized tests, recommendations, and essays.” 

There are 12 modes of Togetherness – four Collective modes, six Individual modes, and two Internal modes.  We grow best when we make use of all 12 modes.

The Systems of ADAPT

Systems 1-8 in a Nutshell: HUMAN GROWTH 

The process of Human Growth can be described by four Domains: Dimensions, Participants, Processes, and Togetherness.  The Dimensions (D) are the eight areas of growth that comprise the Growth Continuum.  The Participants (P) are the seven aspects of Identity or Self that partake in the growth process.  The eight General Processes (PPR) and the 35 Specific Processes (PR) are the Methods and Techniques by which we move along the Growth Continuum.  The 12 Modes of Togetherness (T) are the means by which the whole growth process is Guided and Orchestrated.

Systems 1-8 in a Nutshell: THE LIFE JOURNEY

Metaphorically, Human Growth is the archetypal Life Journey, or Human Odyssey.  This Journey through life uses a detailed Map (D), to take a set of Voyagers (P), on a Sailing Ship (PR), on perilous adventures to exotic destinations – with the assistance of a Navigator and a Captain (T).

 

SYSTEM 1: INDIVIDUAL GROWTH

[System 1 is repeated from Installment #1 for continuity.]

Individual Growth is growth that takes place in individual people.  This mechanism of growth combines the Dimensions of Stages, Transitions, Realms, and Arenas; the Participants of the Self System, the Individual Self, and the Functional Constituents; the General Process of the Transition Cycle; and any of the 12 modes of Togetherness.

The Dimensions of System 1

D1: STAGES.  Stages are the ports of call in our Life’s Journey.  In technical language, Stages [Wilber’s Levels, Stages, Waves] are the levels of development, maturity, enlivenment, or enlightenment through which we pass as we grow.  Stages are generally periods of Assimilation [Wilber’s Metabolism] – times when we digest and metabolize the Discoveries of the previous Transition, turning them into established Traits [Wilber: same term]. 

Stage Growth occurs as we progress within each Stage of Human Development [Wilber’s Horizontal Translation].  Here, we meet and master the Challenges presented by that particular Stage.  First, we improve on the abilities we have acquired at that Stage.  Ex: “As a toddler, I’m getting better and better at walking.”  Second, we translate our competence to other related abilities.  Ex: “Now that I can walk, I’m excited to run, hop, skip, jump, and climb.”  As we shall see, both Improvement and Translation are part of the General Process of Horizontal Growth (PPR5a).

D2: TRANSITIONS.  Transitions are the open seas and routes of passage our Ship will take between one port of call and the next.  In technical language, Transitions [Wilber’s Transformations] are the quantum leaps that take us from one Stage to the next.  Transitions are periods of Vertical Transformation [Wilber: same term] – times when we are becoming something we’ve never been before.  Likewise, they are periods of Discovery – occasions when we encounter new situations and insights we will assimilate during our next Stage of development.  Transition Growth occurs as we Transition from one Stage to the next.  Here, we leave the familiar comfort of past (often-surmounted) Challenges, and venture into the unknown territory of strange and daunting new Challenges.  Ex: “So far, I’ve learned to crawl.  Now, I’ll get up off all fours and learn to toddle -- taking the chance I might fall and hurt myself.”

D1+2: The Developmental SequenceThe Developmental Sequence is our entire Life Journey – from open sea, to port of call, to open sea again, until our Ship reaches its final destination.  In technical language, the Developmental Sequence [Wilber’s Ladder, series of Fulcrums] is a series of alternating Stages and Transitions – of Stage, followed by Transition, followed by Stage, and so forth. 

For example, in the most familiar Developmental Sequence, Life Passages, we may be said to proceed through 13 Stages (in bold) and 12 intervening Transitions (in italics): Heritage > Conception > Gestation > Birth > Infancy > Crawling/walking > Toddler > Terrible 2’s > Young childhood > Entering school > Older childhood > Coming of Age > Adolescence > Nudged from nest > Young adulthood > Making-the-grade > Middle adulthood > Mid-life passage > Mature adulthood > Passing-the-baton > Elderhood > Debility/illness > Senescence > Death > Legacy.

As we shall see, the Stages & Transitions of the Developmental Sequence are navigated by the Self System (P1), through the mechanism of the Transition Cycle (PPR1).

D1+2a: The Fundamental Developmental Sequence (FDS).  For the internal Realms of Psyche, Body, and Spirit (see D3b-d), Wilber posits an all-inclusive series of alternating Stages & Transitions we call the Fundamental Developmental Sequence (or FDS).  [Wilber’s set of Correlative Structures. The left-hand column of Wilber’s Tables from Integral Psychology.]  Wilber’s FDS Sequence consists of 27 Stages and States, separated by 11 Transitions.  The FDS subsumes all other, more abbreviated Developmental Sequences – and therefore allows Wilber to make direct correspondences between the developmental models of many different Authorities.  Ex: “Sullivan, Erikson, Graves, Loevinger, Kegan, and Cook-Greuter all have Developmental Sequences for Self & Ego.  None of them correspond to each other, but they all correspond to the Stages & Transitions of Wilber’s FDS.”  These all-important correspondences are the foundation for Wilber’s ‘Theory of Everything.’  (See our study Arrays of Light for details.)

D3: REALMS.  The Realms [Wilber’s Realms, Planes, Spheres] are the four major spheres of human experience in which growth and development can occur – Everyday Life, the Psyche, the Body, and the Spirit.  Each Realm contains its own series of Stages & Transitions through which growth takes place.  Corresponding to these Realms, there are four major paths of Human Growth (called Passages) -- one external and three internal.  The Realms, with their corresponding Passages, are as follows:

D3a: Life Passages are the external phases of accomplishment or achievement that occur as we progress through the biological Life Cycle.  Ex: “In my Life Passages, I develop through a series of external life Stages  – from infancy, through childhood, through adolescence, and on through various phases of adulthood.”  [Wilber’s Terrestrial Realm, Plane of Existence, Realm of the Material Self]

D3b: Psyche Passages are the internal phases of mental Maturation that occur as we progress through the Stages of psychological development.  Ex: “In the thinking aspect of my Psyche Passages, I develop my cognitive abilities from preconceptual and intuitive, to concrete operations, to formal operations, and finally to polyvalent logic.”  (drawn from Piaget, The Growth of Logical Thinking from Childhood to Adolescence (1958))  [Wilber’s Noosphere, the Realm of the psychological Self]

D3c: Body Passages are the internal phases of physical Enlivenment that occur as we activate and connect the Energy Centers of our body.  Ex: “In my Body Passages, my attention proceeds from Base Chakra needs for food and comfort to the Brow Chakra higher-thought functions of my central nervous system.”  [Wilber’s Physio-Biosphere, the Realm of the Bodyself, or Felt Body]

D3d: Spirit Passages are the internal phases of spiritual Enlightenment that occur as we ascend through the Stages and States of Spiritual Development.  Ex: “As Christians, we honor the Spirit Passages of life through seven sacraments – ranging from Baptism, Communion, and Confirmation To Marriage, Confession, and Ordination – and finally to Extreme Unction at death.”  (drawn from Myss, Anatomy of the Spirit (1996))  [Wilber’s Theosphere, or Celestial Plane]

D4: ARENAS.  Arenas [Wilber’s Lines, Streams] are the specific areas of activity within each Realm where growth takes place.  Each Realm has its own set of Arenas:

D4a: Life Arenas.  Within Life Passages, the Life Arenas are the spheres of activity in which we live our everyday life.  The counseling and coaching professions address at least ten major Life Arenas – five individual and five collective.  Individual Arenas: 1) Education & Skills-Building, 2) Career & Calling, 3) Finances & Investments, 4) Health & Well-Being, 5) Recreation & Enjoyment.  Collective Arenas: 6) Relationships & Marriage, 7) Sexuality & Sensuality, 8) Family & Children, 9) Friendships & Community, 10) Society & Culture.  Ex: “During the course of the day, I allocate my time among various Arenas.  I spend time attending to my work, maintaining my health, managing my money, nurturing my children, and contributing to my community.”

D4b: Psyche Arenas.  Within Psyche Passages, the Psyche Arenas are the themes of psychological development that characterize our inner life.  The psychological Studies from the Tables of Wilber’s Integral Psychology may be divided into nine separate Psyche Arenas:  1) Fundamental Needs, 2) Sexuality & Sensuality, 3) Affect & Emotions, 4) Ego & Experienced Self, 5) Leadership, 6) Cognition, 7) Art, Aesthetics, & Creativity, 8) Ethics & Morality, and 9) Worldviews.  Ex: “We can study the human psyche from the perspective of Needs (Maslow), Self & Ego (Cook-Greuter), Cognition (Piaget), Ethics (Kohlber), or Worldviews (Graves).”  

D4c: Body Arenas (experienced).  Within Body Passages, the Body Arenas are the regions or functions of the body where we experience growth internally.  Although this parameter is still under development, these Arenas will most likely be drawn from the fields that employ them.  These fields include: 1) Body-centered healing practices (acupuncture, chiropractic); 2) Body-directed alternative medicine (homeopathy, vibrational medicine); 3) Experiential, body-oriented psychotherapies (Reichian, Gestalt); 4) Body-inclusive spiritual practices (yoga, qi gong); and 5) The Eastern conception of the Chakras (unified Realms of Body, Psyche, and Spirit).

D4d: Spirit Arenas.  Within Spirit Passages, the Spirit Arenas are the aspects of spiritual evolution that characterize our higher consciousness.  [Although this parameter is still under development, Wilber suggests the following possible Spirit Arenas: 1) Care, 2) Openness, 3) Concern, 4) Religious Faith, and 5) Meditative Stages.]

The Participants of System 1

P1: THE SELF SYSTEM.  In our Life Journey, the Self System is our Hero -- the central character of our story, the adventurer who undergoes challenges and hardships, our Odysseus.  In technical language, the Self System represents two sides of a dialectic by which the Self grows.  [Wilber: no term.  Wilber’s Self-System refers to his Distal Self.]  The Self System consists of two parts -- the Experienced Self and the Observed Self: 

P1a. The Experienced Self.  The Experienced Self [Wilber’s Proximate Self] is the subjective, inside, I-Self [Wilber: same term] -- the Self that identifies with our current Stage of development.  Ex: “I’m a cool, hip, savvy teenager.”

P1b. The Observed Self.  The Observed Self [Wilber’s Distal Self] is the objective, outside, Me-Self [Wilber: same term] -- the Self from a prior Stage of development that we have transcended, or otherwise ceased to identify with.  Ex: “Before I became a cool teenager, I used to be a fat, awkward, confused grade-school kid.”  

As we shall see, the Experienced & Observed Selves are the twin aspects of Identity that proceed through the Stages & Transitions (D1-2), using the mechanism of the Transition Cycle (PPR1).

P2: THE INDIVIDUAL & COLLECTIVE SELVES. 

[This section pertains to both System 1 and System 2.]   In our Human Odyssey, there are Individual characters – like Odysseus and his wife Penelope.  But there are also Group characters – like the ship’s crew, or the Lotus Eaters, or the evil Suitors who attempt to usurp Odysseus’ kingdom.  In technical language, there are two forms of Identity that can participate in the growth process – the Individual Self and the Collective Self:

P2a. The Individual Self.  The Individual Self [Wilber’s Self, Ego] is the Self that identifies and grows as an individual.  This Self progresses through the Stages & Transitions individually (D1-2) -- makes its own decisions, takes its own actions, and bears the consequences of its own behavior.  Ex: “Playing football is a way for me to get attention and win admiration.” 

P2b. The Collective Self.   [See System 2.] 

P6: THE FUNCTIONAL CONSTITUENTS OF SELF.  [Participant P6 is somewhat abstruse and technical.  It is included to account for a parameter Wilber considers important.]  The Functional Constituents [Wilber’s Functional Invariants] are the fundamental attributes of human nature.  They are the components from which the Self is built and the mechanisms that enable the Self to grow.  There are at least eleven Functional Constituents (listed from lowest to highest): Autonomic/ Instinctive, Programmed, Volition, Identity, Defense, Emotion, Intersubjectivity, Creativity, Rationality, Navigation, and Assimilation/Integration.  Ex: “I cope with different situations using different human capacities.  Sometime I exercise my will, sometimes my emotions, sometimes my thinking brain.  At other times, I’m just a programmed robot following conditioned routines.  Sometimes I feel like the grand coordinator and orchestrator of all these abilities.”  The Functional Constituents do not undergo Stage-like development, but they do enable such development to take place.  Their functional capacities can be strengthened and improved through proper use.

The General Processes of System 1

PPR1: THE TRANSITION CYCLE.  Transitions from one Stage to the next occur through a Process of Metamorphosis we call the Transition Cycle [Wilber’s Fulcrum].  In its basic form, the Transition Cycle proceeds through a four-phase sequence: 1) Identification with the Experienced Self (P1a).  Initially, the Self identifies with a particular Stage of development.  Ex: “I am a baby.”  2) Differentiation from the Observed Self (P1b).  Next, the Self transcends that Stage by dis-identifying with it.  Ex: “I am no longer the baby I was.”  3) Re-identification with the new Experienced Self.  Then, the Self begins to identify with the subsequent Stage of development.  Ex: “I am now a toddler.”  4) Integration of the new Experienced Self with the old Observed Self.  Finally, the Self consolidates the new identification with the prior identification.  Ex: “I’m a toddler with good feelings about the baby I used to be.”  [derived from Wilber’s Embedding cycle – which originates with Kegan, The Evolving Self (1982), and other works]  In Actualization Growth (PPR2), we will find that healthy growth occurs as we progress through a whole series of normal Transition Cycles.

 [System 1 may use any of the 35 Specific Processes.  See Installment 3.]

The Togetherness of System 1

The modes of Togetherness are of three types –Collective, Individual, and Internal.  We illustrate System 1 with one example from each type:

T1-4. Collective & Societal Guidance

Collective & Societal Guidance is the Guidance & Orchestration in the growth process provided by the Society and Culture we grow up in:

T1: PARENT/S.  Parents are the original, the most influential, and (ideally) most beneficial Guides of our growth Journey.   Our Parents have potentially the greatest understanding of our needs, the greatest opportunity to have an impact on us, the greatest authority over our lives, the greatest identification with our concerns, and the greatest motivation to help us grow.  Parenting (in its optimal form) can be seen as ‘nature’s way’ to provide every child with an Integral Life Guide (T10).  Ex: “My Dad is there for me at every major life Transition.  His experience and wisdom always helps me to make the right decisions.”  [Wilber makes little mention of the impact of Parenting – except implicitly as a source of certain Pathologies.]

T5-10. Personal & Individual Guidance

Personal & Individual Guidance is the Guidance & Orchestration in the growth process we receive from Guides who we choose ourselves, or who work personally with us:

T5: LONG-TERM PARTNER.  A Long-term Partner or Spouse is the special person we choose to share our Journey through life.  As the relationship progresses, the couple develops (optimally) a deep mutual understanding, a steadfast and abiding trust, and a compassionate commitment to support and guide one another’s growth over the course of a lifetime.  Ex: “In Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice, Lizzie relinquishes her dismissive prejudice, and Darcy subdues his snobbish pride.  When they finally resolve their character flaws, they’re ready for a happy marriage.”  [Wilber’s Grace and Grit is a moving testimonial to the power of this type of Guidance.]

T11-12. Internal Guidance

Internal Guidance is the Guidance & Orchestration in the growth process we provide for ourselves:

T11: INTERNAL NAVIGATORThe Internal Navigator is the Guide we form within ourselves – by internalizing all the Guidance we receive from outside sources.  As we absorb and assimilate the various modes of Guidance (T1-10), we become progressively more independent, more self-sufficient, more self-regulating, more autonomous, more mature.  Ex: “Over the years, I’ve received Guidance from Parents, Teachers, Counselors, Support Groups, and innumerable Authorities.  By this point, I’ve absorbed and internalized all those external Guides, and am increasingly able to navigate my own course.”  [Wilber: implicit, but not specifically mentioned]

 [In addition to the three modes discussed above, System 1 may use any of the 12 modes of Guidance & Orchestration.  See Installment 3.]

System 1 in a Nutshell: INDIVIDUAL GROWTH. 

The Stages (D1) and Transitions (D2) build upon one another to form a Developmental Sequence (D1+2).  The Developmental Sequence occurs within a variety of Arenas (D4) in each of four Realms (D3).  The Stages & Transitions are navigated by a Self System (P1), consisting of the Experienced & Observed Selves (P1a-b).  The Self System progresses from Stage to Stage by the mechanism of the Transition Cycle (PPR1).  A series of Transition Cycles comprise the General Process of Actualization Growth (PPR2 and System 3).  Individual Growth can be facilitated by any of 35 Specific Processes (PR1-35).  It can be Guided and Orchestrated by any of the 12 modes of Togetherness (T1-12).  The Individual Self (P2a) that experiences all this growth is constructed from 11 Functional Constituents (P6).

 

SYSTEM 2: COLLECTIVE GROWTH

Collective Growth is growth that takes place in groups of human beings.  This mechanism of growth combines the Dimensions of the Collective Developmental Sequence; the Participants of the Collective Self; the General Processes of Collective Growth, including the Generation Cycle; and any of the 12 modes of Togetherness.

The Dimensions of System 2

DD1+2: The Collective Developmental Sequence.  Groups go through a sequence of developmental Stages very similar to individuals.  Such Groups range in size and complexity from couples and families to Ethnic Groups and whole Cultures (P2b).  For instance, the two members of a couple can each grow as individuals -- but they can also grow collectively as a couple.  Ex: “As our relationship matures, we may grow from acquaintanceship, to friendship, to temporary involvement, to permanent partnership, etc.”  Likewise, mass populations can progress through Stages & Transitions of Cultural Evolution [Wilber: same term], but spread over eons of time.  Ex: “According to Don Beck’s Spiral Dynamics (1996), Cultures evolve from Instinctive, to Animistic, to Power Gods – continuing all the way through to Integrative and Holistic.”

The Participants of System 2

P2: THE INDIVIDUAL & COLLECTIVE SELVES. 

[This section pertains to both System 1 and System 2.]   In our Human Odyssey, there are Individual characters – like Odysseus and his wife Penelope.  But there are also Group characters – like the ship’s crew, or the Lotus Eaters, or the evil Suitors who attempt to usurp Odysseus’ kingdom.  In technical language, there are two forms of Identity that can participate in the growth process – the Individual Self and the Collective Self:

P2a. The Individual Self.   [See System 1.]

P2b. The Collective Self.  The Collective Self [Wilber’s We-Self, Culture] is the Self that identifies and grows as a member of a Group.  This Self progresses through the Stages & Transitions as a member of a Group (DD1+2) -- shares in Group decisions, participates in Group actions, and bears collective responsibility for its behavior.  Ex: “Playing football is a way I can help my team and win glory for my school.”  Collective Participants in the growth process include every level of human Group -- couples, families, teams, workgroups, communities, Ethnic Groups, nations, Generations, even whole societies and Cultures. 

As we shall see, Groups can grow by the same mechanisms as individuals (PPR1-5) – but may also have their own specialized mechanisms, such as the Generation Cycle (PPR6a).

The General Processes of System 2

PPR6: COLLECTIVE GROWTH.  Vertical Growth and Horizontal Growth can occur not only individually, but also collectively -- with Groups of people ranging from couples to Cultures (P2).  [Wilber’s Cultural Evolution, Spirit-in-Action]  Collective Growth can take place through the same mechanisms as Individual Growth (PPR1-5).  However, Groups also have their own special mechanisms – such as the Generation Cycle: 

PPR6a.  The Generation Cycle.  According to Strauss & Howe (Generations (1991)), Cultures may evolve over decades of time through the mechanism of the Generation Cycle (a cousin to the Transition Cycle).  A Generation is the biological period of life, normally about 20-25 years, between the time one is born and the time one first procreates.  According to the authors, dynamic Cultures repeatedly pass through a Generation Cycle consisting of four characteristic Generations: 1) Prophetic Generation: Conceives a new cultural vision and a new impetus for change; 2) Reactive Generation: Reacts against or detaches from the dominance of the Prophetics; 3) Civic Generation: Fills out and implements the vision of the Prophetics; 4) Bureaucratic Generation: Institutionalizes and standardizes what once was the Prophetic Vision.  After the four Generations are complete, the cycle repeats all over again – but at a higher level of development, with a new Prophetic Vision.  A small number of great people typify, influence, and dominate each Generation.  Ex: “After the Civil War, the Generations proceeded from Franklin Roosevelt [Prophetic], to Ernest Hemingway [Reactive], to John Wayne [Civic], to the Four Freshmen [Bureaucratic].”

 [System 2 may use any of the 35 Specific Processes – especially the Socio-Cultural Processes (PR11-17).  See Installment 3.]

The Togetherness of System 2

[System 2 may use any of the 12 modes of Guidance & Orchestration – especially Society & Culture (T2) below.  For all 12 modes, see Installment 3.]

T2: SOCIETY & CULTUREAs we mature and move out into Society, we receive guidance from the examples of those around us.  Our Society and Culture provides us with a set of role models, a series of lessons on living life, a process of behavioral reinforcement, and a ready-made system of values – all of which enable us to form our attitudes, to shape our behavior, and to conduct our life activities.  Ex: “When I go out on the playground, I make friends and learn the value of teamwork and cooperation.  But I also learn to protect myself from those that might harm me – and to hold my own when I don’t want to be pushed.”  [The influence of Society & Culture is implicit in Wilber’s Cultural Evolution.]

System 2 in a Nutshell: COLLECTIVE GROWTH. 

The series of Stages & Transitions can also occur collectively in the form of a Collective Developmental Sequence (DD1+2).  Collective Participants (P2b) include Groups of any size – from couples and families, to Generations and CulturesCollective Growth may take place through the same mechanisms as Individual Growth (PPR1-5).  However, there are also special Collective Processes of growth (PPR6), such as the Generation Cycle (PPR6a).  Collective Growth can be implemented by all 35 Specific Processes, but especially by  Socio-Cultural Processes (PR11-17).  Collective Growth may be guided and orchestrated by any of the 12 modes of Togetherness – but especially by the Collective & Societal Modes (T1-4).

 

SYSTEM 3: ACTUALIZATION GROWTH

Actualization Growth is growth that takes place in relatively healthy people.  This mechanism of growth combines the Dimension of Impediments in the form of Challenges; both Individual and Collective Participants; the General Process of Actualization Growth, as manifested in the Actualization Cycle; and any of the 12 modes of Togetherness – with special emphasis on the Counselor, the Growth Center, and the Integral Life Guide.

The Dimensions of System 3

D7: IMPEDIMENTS.  [This section pertains to both System 3 and System 4.]   In our Life Journey, Impediments are all the obstacles that stand between us and our destination – raging seas, adverse winds, mutinous crews, hostile tribes, etc.  In technical terms, Impediments are all the ways the growth process can be limited or obstructed.  There are two kinds of Impediments -- Challenges and Impasses: 

D7a. Challenges.  Challenges are overt, everyday obstacles faced by relatively healthy people.  Such obstacles cause the growth process to become limited, restricted, diverted, denied, neglected, un-actualized, or avoided.  Ex: “Landing this job will be a big challenge.  I’ll have to prepare well and do my best in the interview today.”  As we shall see, Challenges can be surmounted by Actualization Growth (PPR2) – often with the help of a Counselor (T6a) or Integral Life Guide (T10).  When Challenges are not engaged and overcome, they become Limitations, and may eventually result in atrophy or Blight.

D7ba. Impasses.  [See System 4]

The Participants of System 3

P2: THE INDIVIDUAL & COLLECTIVE SELVES.  [See Systems 1 + 2.]

The General Processes of System 3

PPR2: ACTUALIZATION GROWTH.  In our Life Journey, Actualization Growth is the normal progress of our Voyage – from one port of call to the next, until we finally reach our destination.  In technical terms, Actualization Growth [Wilber’s Evolution, Actualizing the Great Nest] is the growth that takes place in basically healthy people.  It is the Process of ‘growing forward’ – meeting everyday life Challenges (D7a) through a series of healthy Transition Cycles (PPR1).  Actualization Growth is the growth Abraham Maslow called ‘Actualizing our Human Potential’ – actualizing qualities for which we have an innate potential, by moving progressively to higher and higher Stages of development (Maslow, Toward a Psychology of Being (1968)).  Ex: “As a baby, I have the innate potential to become a Young Adult.  To get there, I must progress though the Stages of Toddler, Young Childhood, Older Childhood, and Adolescence.”  Actualization Growth can be facilitated by a Counselor or Coach (T6a), using any of our 35 Specific Processes (PR1-35).

PPR2a: The Actualization Cycle.  Actualization Growth typically occurs through a four-phase process we call the Actualization Cycle (a cousin to the Transition Cycle):  1) Recognition.  We become aware of a significant growth opportunity – and of the Challenge we must face to achieve that opportunity.  Ex: “ If I can land this job, it will raise me from flunky to manager.  To be chosen, I must do well in the job interview.”  2) Engagement.  We make a deliberate effort to meet the Challenge presented by that growth opportunity.  Ex: “Even though I’m scared stiff, and the competition is huge, I’ll go all out to land this job.  I’ll prepare well to maximize my chances.”  3) Breakthrough. We master, surmount, or otherwise resolve the Challenge favorably.  Ex: “During the interview, I won him over with my enthusiasm, my responsible demeanor, and my well-rehearsed knowledge of his industry.”  4) Integration.  We assimilate the Breakthrough into our personality and self-image.  Ex: “Now that I’ve succeeded in landing the job, I already feel like a manager.  My self-confidence has increased.  I find it easier to assert myself and to speak up when I have an opinion.”

Although Actualization Growth refers primarily to Individual Vertical Growth (PPR1), it can also include the other forms of growth– Evolution & Involution, Horizontal Growth, Collective Growth, and Awakening (PPR4-7).

 [System 3 may use any of the 35 Specific Processes – but especially the Conscious Development Processes (PR29-33).  See.  See Installment 3.]

The Togetherness of System 3

[System 3 may use any of the 12 modes of Guidance & Orchestration – but especially the Counselor (T6a), the Integral Life Guide (T10), and the Growth Center (T9) below.  For all 12 modes, see Installment 3.]

T6: COUNSELOR OR THERAPIST.  [This section pertains to both System 3 and System 4.]  A Counselor or Coach (T6a) is a Growth Practitioner specially trained to implement some aspect of Actualization Growth (PPR2) for people with Challenges (D7a).  A Therapist (T6b) -- such as a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist -- is a Growth Practitioner who is specially trained to implement Restoration Growth (PPR3) for people with Impasses (D7b).  Whereas a Counselor may use any of the 35 Specific Processes, a Therapist often focuses on Conscious Development Processes (PR29-33).  Ex: “Our Marriage Counselor is helping us to work through misunderstandings in our relationship, and to live within our budget.  My Therapist is helping me confront my Shadow Self -- the Inner Gremlin that sabotages all my long-term relationships.”  [Wilber often endorses the use of Counselors and Therapists.]

T9: GROWTH CENTERS.  [Repeated in System 8.  The Growth Center per se (T9e) pertains especially to System 3.  The Meditation Center (T9a) pertains to System 8.]  A Growth Center is a Holistic Growth Situation (T3) where people gather together with the explicit intent of cultivating a particular aspect of growth.  Over the course of centuries, at least five types of Growth Centers have developed:  T9a. The Monastery.  Comparable to the modern Church Community or Meditation Center; T9b. The School or University.  Currently, the creative grade school and the innovative liberal arts college; T9c. The Health Retreat.  At present often diminished to beauty spas and fat farms; T9d. The Intentional Community.  From Pilgrims, to Amish, to counter-culture communes; and T9e. The Growth Center per se.  Human Potential Growth Centers like Esalen Institute.

A Growth Center is particularly effective at guiding growth, since it controls and orchestrates every aspect of the growth environment – thus directing the entire experience toward the desired form of development.  Ex: “My daughter attends a very creative elementary school.  All their academic subjects use hands-on experience to convey abstract concepts.  The extra-curricular activities -- like art, drama, computers, sports, nature study, and big-city field trips – all emphasize individual involvement and personal creativity.  Our school believes in growing the whole person.”  [Integral Institute is Wilber’s own virtual Growth Center.]

T10: INTEGRAL LIFE GUIDE.  The Integral Life Guide is a Growth Practitioner whose work encompasses all four Domains of personal development. Using the ADAPT Model or some equivalent, these Guides help us weave together all the diverse strands of Dimensions, Participants, Processes, and Togetherness to produce the most complete growth experience.  Ex: “My Integral Counselor supports my psychological sensitivity, my physical aliveness, and my spiritual clarity – meanwhile, never allowing me to neglect my job or my marriage.”  Integral Life Guides may be either Counselors (T6a) or Therapists (T6b) – depending upon the seriousness of the problems to be dealt with.  [Wilber’s Full Spectrum Therapist and practitioners of Integral Life Practice (ILP)]

System 3 in a Nutshell: ACTUALIZATION GROWTH. 

Impediments (D7) are obstacles to the growth process -- either in the form of Challenges (System 3) or Impasses (System 4).  Impediments in the form of Challenges (D7a) can be met through Actualization Growth (PPR2).  In Actualization Growth, our Human Potential is brought to fruition through a series of Actualization Cycles (PPR2a), using any of the 35 Specific Processes.  Such growth may be especially facilitated by a Counselor (T6a) or Integral Life Guide (T10) -- sometimes in the supportive environment of the Growth Center (T9).  When Challenges are not engaged and overcome, they become Limitations, and may eventually result in Blight (D7a).  Actualization Growth can occur for both Individuals and Groups.

 

SYSTEM 4: RESTORATION GROWTH

Restoration Growth is growth that takes place in people with ‘problems.’  This mechanism of growth combines the Dimension of Impediments in the form of Impasses; the Participant of the Shadow Self, derived from the Shadow Cycle; the General Processes of Restoration Growth, implemented by the Restoration Cycle; and any of the 12 modes of Togetherness – with special emphasis on the Therapist, the Growth Center, and the Integral Life Guide.

The Dimensions of System 4

D7: IMPEDIMENTS.  [This section pertains to both System 3 and System 4.]  In our Life Journey, Impediments are all the obstacles that stand between us and our destination – raging seas, adverse winds, mutinous crews, hostile tribes, etc.  In technical terms, Impediments are all the ways the growth process can be limited or obstructed.  There are two kinds of Impediments -- Challenges and Impasses: 

D7a. Challenges.  [See System 3.]

D7b. Impasses.  Impasses [Wilber’s Pathologies] are submerged or Subconscious difficulties encountered by people with ‘problems.’  These Blocks, Hang-ups, or Pathologies can cause the growth process to become obstructed, thwarted, blocked, repressed, distorted, split off, repressed, or damaged.  Ex: “To succeed in this job, I’ll need to resolve Impasses that have caused me to fail in the past.  I’ve been hung up on authority issues that began in early conflicts with my father.  Now they cloud my relationship with my boss.” As we shall see, Impasses are often symptoms of a pernicious Shadow Self (P4), which was created by a Shadow Cycle (PPR1a).  They can sometimes be resolved by Restoration Growth (PPR3), with the assistance of a trained Therapist (T6b).

The Participants of System 4

P4: THE SHADOW SELF.  On our Life Voyage, the Shadow Self is the misfit who causes the Journey to go wrong -- the grumbler, the plotter, the saboteur, the mutineer, the stowaway.  In technical language, the Shadow Self [Wilber’s Subpersonality] is the Inner Saboteur or Gremlin -- any disattached scrap of identity that impedes or distorts the growth process.  Ex: “Sometimes I’m cruising along happily.  But then some minor frustration will send my Inner Gremlin into a towering rage.”  As we have seen, the Shadow Self is the source of deep-seated Impasses (D7b) that can block or divert our growth.  As we shall see, the Shadow Self is typically produced by a Shadow Cycle (PPR1a), and can sometimes be resolved through Restoration Growth (PPR3).

The General Processes of System 4

PPR1: THE TRANSITION CYCLE.  [See System 1.]

PPR1a: The Shadow Cycle.  A traumatic phase or episode can sometimes cause the Transition Cycle (PPR1) to malfunction.  The resulting Shadow Cycle can sometimes produce a pernicious Shadow Self:  1) Identification.  Initially, the Self experiences a very uncomfortable Stage of development.  Ex: “I’m having bad experiences as a baby.”  2) Detachment.  Next, the Self distances itself from that Stage.  Ex: “I am escaping the baby I was.”  3) Re-identification.  Then, the Self begins to identify with the next, more comfortable Stage of development.  Ex: “I’m relieved to become a toddler.”  4) Disassociation.  After that, the Self severs the association between Stages, by using any of several Defense Mechanisms to minimize the memory of the earlier Stage.  Ex: “I’m a toddler who’s repressing bad feelings about the baby I used to be.”  5) Disattached Shadow Self.  Since the unpleasant memory remains buried but not erased, a Shadow Self lurks in the subconscious -- twisting and distorting present attitudes and actions.  Ex: “Even when I’m an adult, the unhappy baby within me distorts my perceptions of present situations.” 

As we have seen, the Shadow Self (P4) produced by this faulty Transition Cycle can cause an Impasse (D7b) that interferes with the normal process of growth.  As we shall see, such Impasses can sometimes be resolved by Restoration Growth (PPR3 below).

PPR3: RESTORATION GROWTH.  In our Life Journey, Restoration Growth is getting back on track after our Ship has been blown off course -- or putting in for repairs when our Ship has been damaged by battles or storms.  In technical terms, Restoration Growth is the basic growth Process for people with ‘problems.’  In its most common manifestation, Restoration growth is ‘growing backward’ [Wilber’s Uncovering] – revisiting past Stages to resolve Impasses (D7b), so that normal, forward-directed Actualization Growth (PPR2) can resume.  Ex: “Before I can have a successful marriage, I need to revisit and resolve an early childhood trauma that makes me suspicious of others and afraid of intimacy.”  Because of the intransigence of Impasses, Restoration Growth must generally be facilitated with the help of a trained Therapist (T6b), using primarily Conscious Development Processes (PR29-33).  [Wilber’s Therapies and Treatments, the Shadow Module of ILP]

D3a. The Restoration Cycle.  Restoration Growth typically occurs through a six-phase process we call the Restoration Cycle (another cousin to the Transition Cycle):  1) Recognition.  We recognize that we are unhappy and need help.  We seek the assistance of a Therapist, or some other Growth Professional.  Ex: “I’m having bouts of depression and anxiety, so I’ve decided to see a good psychologist.”  2) Resurrecting.  In Therapy, we become aware of a past situation that has created an Impasse.  We resurrect it, uncover it, recollect it, bring it to the surface.  Ex: “Through dreamwork, bodywork, and talk therapy, I’ve gradually become aware of a brief but traumatic abandonment episode in my early childhood.”  3) Confronting.  We own up to our deep-seated problems, and make a conscious decision to confront them.  Ex: “With the support of my Partner and my Therapist, I’ve summoned up the courage to go back and face my painful early experiences.”  4) Re-experiencing.  We re-experience the original traumatic phase or episode through memory.  We revisit and re-live it, until we defuse its explosive and destructive power.  Ex: “In a series of therapy sessions, I’m re-experiencing that painful trauma – reliving it again and again, and releasing my anguish through anger and tears, until the sting finally begins to fade.”  5) Re-integrating.  We come to view the troubling past situation from a more mature perspective – unhook from it, reinterpret it, place it in context.  Often, we replace the original memory with a healthier, more objective version of the same recollection.  Ex: “Now that I see that traumatic early experience from an adult perspective, it no longer seems so painful or so devastating.  It’s become just one of many minor mishaps that occur throughout everyone’s childhood.”  6) Resuming.  Once past issues are resolved, we resume forward-directed Actualization Growth (PPR2).  Often, we may need reconsider previous life decisions made under the influence of the Shadow Self.  Ex: “Now that I’ve resolved the Impasse that caused me to be distant and aloof, I’m ready to get serious about my long-term relationship.  I’ve also decided to change careers, so I can have more contact with people.”

 [System 4 may use any of the 35 Specific Processes – but especially the Conscious Development Processes (PR29-33).  See Installment 3.]

The Togetherness of System 4

[System 4 may use any of the 12 modes of Guidance & Orchestration – but especially the Therapist (T6b) below.  For all 12 modes, see Installment 3.]

T6: COUNSELOR OR THERAPIST.  [The Counselor (T6a) functions to implement System 3.  The Therapist (T6b) implements System 4.  For a discussion of both, see System 3.]

System 4 in a Nutshell: RESTORATION GROWTH 

Impediments in the form of Impasses (D7b) are often symptoms of a pernicious Shadow Self (P4) -- generally formed by a Shadow Cycle (PPR1a).  Impasses can be resolved by Restoration Growth (PPR3), through the mechanism of the Restoration Cycle (PPR3a) – often with the assistance of a trained Therapist (T6b), using primarily the Conscious Development Processes (PR29-33).  Restoration Growth can occur for both Individuals and Groups.

 

SYSTEM 5: EVOLUTION & INVOLUTION

[System 5 somewhat abstruse and esoteric.  It is included to account for parameters Wilber considers important.]

Evolution & Involution Growth is growth that takes place in two fundamental Direction – Upwards & Outwards, or Downward & Inwards.  This mechanism of growth combines the Dimensions of Directions & Trajectories; both Individual and Collective Participants; the General Process of Evolution & Involution; and any of the 12 modes of Togetherness.

D5. DIRECTIONS & TRAJECTORIES.  The Dimensions we have discussed thus far (D1-4) all assume that growth is directed from lower Stages to higher Stages – that is, Upwards and Outwards [Wilber’s Evolution].  However, there is a corresponding form of growth that may be considered to take place Downwards and Inwards [Wilber’s Involution].  This Dimension addresses those two major forms of such growth -- Directions and Trajectories:

D5a: Directions.  In each of the four Realms, we can orient our life activities in two major Directions – Ascending and Descending (or, Outward and Inward).  [Wilber’s Height and Depth]  In the Ascending or Outward Direction, we ‘evolve’ toward Achievement, Aliveness, Maturity, and Enlightenment.  In the Descending or Inward Direction, we ‘involve’ toward Fulfillment, Grounding, Authenticity, and Compassion.  Ex: “As a Male, I emphasize the Ascending Direction of growth – individual advancement, material success, and spiritual enlightenment.  As a Female, my wife emphasizes the Descending Direction -- authentic relationships, fulfilling activities, and spiritual compassion.”

As we shall see, the Ascending & Descending Directions of growth are generally characteristic of Male & Female Gender Types, respectively (P3a).  As we shall also see, the Ascending & Descending Directions are implemented by the twin General Processes of Evolution & Involution (PPR4).

D5b: Trajectories.  When the Directions are played out over the full course of a lifetime, they become Trajectories [Wilber’s U-shaped Pattern].  In earlier life, we trace an Ascending arc of Evolution – where we ‘evolve’ toward Achievement, Aliveness, Maturity, and Enlightenment.  In later life, we follow a Descending arc of Involution – where we ‘involve’ toward Fulfillment, Grounding, Authenticity, and Compassion.  Ex: “In my earlier life, I felt driven toward career success and social prominence.  Now, in my later life, I seek deep relationships and meaningful accomplishments.”  The difficult mid-life Transition from outward Trajectory to inward Trajectory is often referred to as the ‘Mid-life Crisis.’

The Participants of System 5

P2: THE INDIVIDUAL & COLLECTIVE SELVES.  [See System 2.]

P3a. Gender Types.  The tendency toward Evolution is especially characteristic of Male Gender Types – while Involution is more typical of Females.  [See System 6.]

The General Processes of System 5

PPR4: EVOLUTION & INVOLUTION.  Evolution & Involution are the twin Processes by which Directional Growth takes place.  The Ascending Direction of growth (D5a) occurs through the Process of Evolution [Wilber: same term].  The Descending Direction of growth (D5a also) occurs through the Process of Involution [Wilber: same term].  Evolution & Involution manifests itself in at least three forms – Transcend & Include, Trajectories, and Gender Types:

PPR4a.  Transcend & Include [Wilber: same term]The Transcend & Include manifestation of Evolution & Involution occurs in three phases: 1. Evolution. We evolve by ‘transcending’ a prior Stage, but also ‘including’ that Stage in our next Stage.  Ex: “I make a living devising complex computer algorithms.  But I still love telling silly jokes and mud-wrestling with my kids.”  2. Disconnection.  If we Transcend without Including, we ‘split off’ or Disconnect.  That is, we detach our ‘higher’ capacities from our ‘lower’ ones.  The result is a debilitating Impediment called Disconnection.  Ex: “Now that I’ve become a serious computer professional, I’ve put aside childish activities – like dumb jokes and undignified horseplay.”  3. Involution. To re-connect, we ‘Include’ Stages that we have previously ‘Transcended.’  In other words, we ‘return to our Roots.’  Through the Process of Involution, we re-visit and re-integrate lower Stages of consciousness that may have become neglected or discarded as we evolved.  Ex: “As a detached and disconnected Adult, I am using Gestalt Therapy and Bodywork to reconnect with my Inner Child.”  Since Involution is a revisiting and assimilating of past Stages, it can be considered a form of Restoration Growth (PPR3) for relatively healthy people.

PPR4b.  Trajectories.  (See D5b above.)

 P3a.  Gender Types.  (See P3a above.)

 [System 5 may use any of the 35 Specific Processes.  See Installment 3.]

The Togetherness of System 5

 [System 5 may use any of the 12 modes of Guidance & Orchestration.  See Installment 3.]

System 5 in a Nutshell: EVOLUTION & INVOLUTION

The Evolution & Involution process occurs in at least three forms:  1) Directions.  We can grow Upwards & Outwards in an Ascending Direction.  However, we can also grow Downwards & Inwards in a Descending Direction (D5a).  In the Ascending Direction of Evolution, we Transcend a prior Stage, and Include it in the subsequent Stage (PPR4a).  When we fail to Include, we split off or Disconnect from the prior Stage (PPR4b).  In that case, the Descending Direction of Involution is needed to Reconnect us with our Roots (PPR4c).  2) Trajectories.  Over the course of a lifetime, we will incorporate both Directions into our Life Trajectories (D5b) – an Ascending arc of Evolution in early life, and a Descending arc of Involution later on.  3) Gender Types.  The Ascending Direction is also a natural tendency of Male Gender Types – while the Descending Direction is often a characteristic of Females (P3a). All three.  Evolution & Involution can be facilitated using any of the 35 Specific Processes and the 12 modes of Togetherness.  It occurs in both Individuals and Groups.

 

SYSTEM 6: HORIZONTAL GROWTH

Horizontal Growth is growth that takes place within a Stage of Development.  This mechanism of growth combines the Dimension of Stages; the Participants of Types & Personae; the General Process of Horizontal Growth; and any of the 12 modes of Togetherness.

The Dimensions of System 6

D1: STAGES.  [This paragraph is repeated from System 1 for continuity.]  Stages are the ports of call in our Life’s Journey.  In technical language, Stages [Wilber’s Levels, Stages, Waves] are the levels of development, maturity, enlivenment, or enlightenment through which we pass as we grow.  Stages are generally periods of Horizontal Improvement and Translation [Wilber’s Horizontal Translation] – times when we are becoming better at activities we already know how to do, and extending those skills to related activities.  Likewise, they are periods of Assimilation [Wilber’s Metabolism] – times when we digest and metabolize the Discoveries of the previous Transition, turning them into established Traits [Wilber: same term]. 

The Participants of System 6

P3: TYPES & PERSONAE.  On our Life Journey, the Types and Personae are the distinctive, stereotyped ‘characters’ we find aboard Ship – the forceful leader, the dutiful helper, the reclusive thinker, the cooperative mate, the jokester, the conciliator, the rebel.  In technical language, a Type [Wilber: same term] is a profile of Personality that recurs in human populations with a significant degree of regularity.  The Persona (or Role) [Wilber’s Role] is an aspect of Type, as it functions to enable societal interaction.  That is, the Persona is our ‘public face’ -- the set of attributes and behaviors we construct to enable the Self to play a part in the drama of existence.  Types and Personae do not themselves grow or evolve.  However, each Type proceeds through the Stages & Transitions in its own Style.  [Wilber’s Voice -- drawn from Gilligan, In a Different Voice (1982)]

Types & Personae include: a) Gender Types, b) Enneagram Types, c) Birth-Order Types, d) Ethnic & Cultural Types, and e) Personality Assessment systems like Jungian and Myers-Briggs.  We will concentrate on the first two: 

P3a. Gender Types.  Gender Types [Wilber: same term] are the attitudes and modes of behavior that originate from one’s sexual Gender.  Male and Female Gender Types have different Styles of proceeding through the Stages & Transitions.  [For Stages: Wilber’s Agency vs. Communion.  For Transitions: Wilber’s Eros vs. Agape].  Ex: “My husband and I generally agree on what needs to be done, but the two of us may handle the task differently.  My husband tends to work internally and independently to accomplish his own objectives.  I work with others to obtain the best solution for everyone.” 

As we have seen, the Styles of Male & Female Gender Types are often characterized by the Ascending & Descending Directions of growth, respectively (D5).  As we have also seen, Males and Females tend to grow by the twin Processes of Evolution and Involution, respectively (PPR4).  [See System 5.]

P3b. Enneagram Types.  The Enneagram is a widely-accepted system for classifying Types and Personae.  According to Riso & Hudson (The Wisdom of the Enneagram (1999)), the nine Enneagram Types [Wilber’s Enneagram Types] are: #1) Reformer = Principled, idealistic crusader; #2) Helper = Caring, self-sacrificing supporter; #3) Achiever = Ambitious, adaptive competitor; #4) Individualist = Romantic, introspective artist; #5) Investigator = Intense, cerebral analyst; #6) Loyalist = Committed, security-oriented team-player; #7) Enthusiast = Busy, social bon-vivant; #8) Challenger = Powerful, dominating leader; #9) Peacemaker = Good-natured, easy-going conciliator.

As we shall see, the Enneagram Types are prime examples of Horizontal Equivalence (PPR5c).  That is, we don’t grow from Reformer, to Helper, to Achiever, etc.  Rather, each Enneagram Type proceeds through comparable Stages & Transitions in the Style characteristic of that Type.  Ex: “I’m a Reformer (#1), and my wife is a Helper (#2).  We are both going through Mid-Life Passage, but in different Styles.  I am relinquishing practical concerns, and concentrating on my contribution to humanity.  My wife is dropping her unneeded obligations to others, and attending to her own personal fulfillment.” 

Although we do not develop from one Enneagram Type to the next, we can progress and improve within a Type.  Ex: “As an Individualist (#4), I am progressing from withdrawn and self-absorbed to passionate and creative.  As a Challenger (#8), my husband is improving from domineering and tactless to self-confident and decisive.”

The General Processes of System 6

PPR5: HORIZONTAL GROWTH.  The previously discussed General Processes (PPR1-4) all pertain primarily to Vertical Growth – that is, growth from one Stage to the next.  There is also an important set of Processes that pertain to Horizontal Growth – that is, growth that occurs within a Stage.  There are two main forms of Horizontal Growth – Improvement & Translation and Equivalence: 

PPR5a. Improvement & Translation.  We can Improve on the abilities we have acquired at a particular Stage.  Ex: “As a toddler, I’m getting better and better at walking.”  In addition, we can generalize or Translate our competence to other related abilities.  Ex: “Now that I can walk, I’m excited to run, hop, skip, jump, and climb.”

PPR5b. Equivalence.  Depending on our Personality Type, we can proceed through each Stage in Styles that are Horizontally Equivalent.  Ex: “As typical newlyweds, my daughter and her husband have both moved into Young Adulthood.  Although the Stage is the same, their Styles are totally different:  As a traditional Female, our daughter is pregnant and building a nest.  As a traditional Male, our son-in-law is striving to make his mark at work.”  [Wilber’s Horizontal Translation refers to both forms.] 

[System 6 may use any of the 35 Specific Processes.  See Installment 3.]

The Togetherness of System 6

[System 6 may use any of the 12 modes of Guidance & Orchestration.  See Installment 3.]

System 6 in a Nutshell: HORIZONTAL GROWTH. 

Growth can be either Vertical (as in Systems 1-5) or Horizontal.  Whereas Vertical Growth takes us from Stage to Stage, Horizontal Growth (PPR5) is growth within a Stage.  There are two modes of Horizontal Growth:  1) Improvement & Translation.  Horizontal Growth in the form of Improvement & Translation (PPR5a) takes place as we fill out and generalize our skills at each Stage (D1) of development.  2) Equivalence.  Horizontal Growth in the form of Equivalence (PPR5b) takes place as different Personality Types (P3) proceed through a given Stage in their own Styles.  Male and female Gender Types (P3a) are perhaps the prime determinant of one’s Style of growth.  Enneagram Types, Birth Order Types, and Ethnic & Cultural Types (P3b-d) are also important determinants of one’s Style.  Both.  Horizontal Growth may be facilitated by any of the 35 Specific Processes and 12 modes of Togetherness.  It occurs in both Individuals and Groups.

 

SYSTEM 7: PERSPECTIVE GROWTH

 [System 7 is somewhat abstruse and esoteric.  It is included to account for parameters Wilber considers important.] 

Perspective Growth is growth that takes place as we shift or broaden our Identity.  This mechanism of growth combines the Dimensions of Perspectives & Paths; the Participants of Multiple Identities; the General Process of Perspective Growth; and any of the 12 modes of Togetherness.

The Dimensions of System 7

D6: PERSPECTIVES & PATHS.  In our Life Journey, the Perspectives are the four points of the compass, and Paths are the four corresponding directions toward which we can journey. 

D6a: Perspectives of GrowthThe Perspectives [Wilber’s Quadrants] are four basic points-of-view, or aspects of existence, from which any growth experience can be interpreted: Internal/Individual [upper-left], External/Individual [upper-right], Internal/Collective – i.e. cultural [lower-left]; and External/Collective – i.e. societal [lower-right].  As we shall see, Perspective Growth (PPR7) occurs as we maximize our growth by attending to all four Perspectives.  Ex: “My financial achievements affect my material circumstances [upper-right] -- but they also affect my internal pride and confidence [upper-left], my designated role in Society [lower-right], and the respect accorded me by a success-oriented culture [lower-left].”

D6b: Paths of Growth.  Paths [Wilber’s Quadrants, applied] are the four Perspectives, as applied to the types of life activity we choose to focus our attention on.  That is, we can concentrate our life either on the external Realm of Life Passages (D3a) – or on the Internal Realms of Body, Psyche, and Spirit (D3b-d).  Likewise, we can focus our attention primarily on our growth as Individuals (P2a) – or on our Collective growth as members of a Group (P2b).  As we shall see (PPR7), Path Growth occurs as we more fully explore all four Paths available to us.  Ex: “In my everyday life, I’m developing a budget and cutting back on expenses [external/individual].  At the same time, I’m working on my assertiveness and self esteem [internal/individual].  On a broader scale, I’m contributing to the success of my workgroup [external/collective], and promoting constructive dialog within my community [internal/collective].”

As we shall see, the Perspectives & Paths engage Individuals in a form of Multiple Identity called Shifting Identity (P5a).  As we shall also see, growth in Perspectives & Paths can be implemented by a form of Perspective Growth called Fundamental Perspectives (PPR7a).

The Participants of System 7

P5: MULTIPLE IDENTITIES.  Up until now, we have assumed that Individuals have only one Identity, their own.  In this section we discuss situations where healthy Individuals can assume more than one Identity – either by Shifting or by Broadening their Identity:

P5a. Shifting Identity [Wilber’s Quadrants]As discussed under Perspectives & Paths (D6), we can view our life from any of four Fundamental Perspectives, and follow any of four Fundamental Life Paths.  In taking such Perspectives and following such Paths, we are actually assuming one of four Fundamental Identities.  That is, we experience our life primarily as a person who is Internal/Individual, External/Individual, External/Collective, or Internal Collective.  Ex: “When I paint and sculpt, I experience my Internal/Individual Self.  When I fix my car, I focus on my External/Individual Self.  When I play on our basketball team, I engage my External/Collective Self.  When I share in singing Christmas carols at the old mission, I embrace my Internal/Collective Self.”

P5b. Broadening Identity [Wilber’s Inclusiveness]As we will describe under Perspective Growth (PPR7b), we can grow by becoming more Inclusive as to who or what we Identify or Empathize with.  By such Identification, we are actually assuming Identities beyond our own.  Ex: “When I trick or cheat people, or pursue my own selfish needs, I limit my Identity to a small and isolated Me.  When I empathize with people and care for their needs, I expand my identity to include their Selves as well as my own.”

The General Processes of System 7

PPR7. PERSPECTIVE GROWTH.  Perspective Growth occurs as we broaden the Perspectives from which we view and orchestrate our lives.  Such growth may occur in at least two forms – Fundamental Perspectives and Inclusiveness: 

PPR7a. Fundamental Perspectives [Wilber’s Quadrants, applied].  We may broaden our viewpoint, interests, and actions to incorporate all four Fundamental Perspectives – Internal/Individual, External/Individual, Internal/Collective, and External/Collective.  (For clarity, this Process has been discussed under Perspectives & Paths (D6).) 

PPR7b. Inclusiveness [Wilber: same].  As we grow, we become more Inclusive as to who or what we identify with.  For instance, we may broaden the scope of our Identification or Empathy to include different Gender Types, different Ethnic Types, or other forms of Diversity.  Ex: “As a self-absorbed teenager, I was oblivious and even contemptuous of the needs of others.  Now as a mature adult, it pains me to see other people ignored, manipulated, or mistreated.” 

As we have seen, Perspective Growth enables Individuals to assume Multiple Identities – Identities that are either Shifting (P5a) or Broadening (P5b).

 [System 7 may use any of the 35 Specific Processes.  See Installment 3.]

The Togetherness of System 7

[System 7 may use any of the 12 modes of Guidance & Orchestration.  See Installment 3.]

System 7 in a Nutshell: PERSPECTIVE GROWTH

Perspective Growth occurs as we shift or broaden the Perspectives from which we view and orchestrate our lives.  Such growth appears in at least two forms:  1) Fundamental Perspectives.  We can choose to concentrate on any of four major Life Paths (D6b).  These Paths derive from the four Fundamental Perspectives (D6a) from which we can view any life activity.  Fundamental Perspective Growth occurs as we increasingly utilize all four potential Paths and Perspectives (PPR7a).  2) Inclusiveness.  Perspective Growth also occurs as we become more Inclusive in those we Identify and Empathize with – including Gender Types, Ethnic Groups, and other forms of Diversity (PPR7b).  Both.  Perspective Growth can be facilitated using any of the 35 Specific Processes and 12 modes of Togetherness.  It enables Individuals to assume Multiple Identities – Identities that are either Shifting or Broadening (P5).

 

SYSTEM 8: SPIRITUAL GROWTH

[The subject of religious experience is necessarily speculative and controversial.  However, the following is what our study and experience tells us to be true.]

Spiritual Growth is growth that takes place through Awakening to the Divine Presence.  This mechanism of growth combines the Dimension of States; the Participants of the Core Self and the Witness; the General Process of Awakening; and any of the 12 modes of Togetherness – with special emphasis on the Spiritual Guide and the Meditation Center.

The Dimensions of System 8

D8: STATES.  In our Life Journey, the States are the supremely illuminating moments when we commune with the gods.  In technical language, the States [Wilber: same term] are the higher levels of consciousness experienced by mystics and translucents.  [Wilber identifies the four higher States as: Nature Mysticism, Deity Mysticism, Formless Mysticism, and Non-Dual Mysticism.]  As we shall see, the States are progressive recognitions of the Divine Presence (P7), which are revealed through the Process of Awakening (PPR8) – sometimes with the assistance of a Spiritual Guide (T7) in the supportive environment of a Meditation Center (T9a).

D8a. The Romantic Fallacy.  Even States may be subject to Impediments (D7).  With the Romantic Fallacy [Wilber’s Pre/Trans Fallacy], we may interpret the primitive, archaic, or mythical Stages as higher Stages or States – thereby diverting our genuine quest into immature behaviors.  Ex: “Now that I’ve graduated from college, it’s time for me to go out and make my way in the world.  However, I’ve decided to bypass all that with conga drumming and growing seedlings in the Esalen garden.”  This debilitating and pervasive Impediment is the source of much confusion and misdirection in the Counter-culture, Human Potential, and New Age Movements.

D8b. The Inverse Romantic Fallacy.  With the Inverse Romantic Fallacy, we may mistake the advanced Stages and States for low-level Stages or Pathologies -- thereby casting doubt on the very existence of higher consciousness.  Ex: “All those mystics and yogis meditating on mountaintops are just nut cases that haven’t been diagnosed yet.”  This Impediment is a source of confusion for the Conservative and Fundamentalist camps.

The Participants of System 8

P7 & T12: THE DIVINE PRESENCE.  The Divine Presence [Wilber’s Spirit] is the spiritual entity at the center of our lives.  The Divine Presence is our highest Participant (P7) -- the entity that navigates the States of consciousness (D8).  The Divine Presence is also our highest form of Togetherness (T12)  – the ultimate Guide & Orchestrator of our Life Journey. We experience the Divine Presence in two aspects – the Core Self and the Witness:

P7a. The Core Self.  In its Immanent form, the Divine Presence is our Core Self [Wilber’s I-I-Self, True Self, Soul] – our pure Identity, unaffected by material concerns, physical discomforts, or psychological obsessions and compulsions. Ex: “Within me, my Core Self is a touchstone that helps me choose rewarding and fulfilling life activities that are not driven by my compulsions or my ego.”

P7b. The Witness.  In its Transcendent form, the Divine Presence is The Witness [Wilber’s Witness, Pure Consciousness, Seer].  The Witness is the pervasive, overarching presence that presides over all aspects of our existence -- observing, guiding, cherishing, and protecting us.  Ex: “Above me, the Witness helps to keep my petty anxieties and cravings in perspective, and to experience my life as part of one vast Divine plan.”

As we shall see, the Divine Presence does not transition from one Stage to the next.  Rather, by a process of Awakening (PPR8), we proceed through a series of illuminating States (D8) – whereby the Divine Presence is progressively revealed in all its glory.  From an Eastern perspective, the Divine Presence may be termed Spirit.  From a Western perspective, the Immanent Presence is the Christ (or His surrogate, the Holy Spirit); the Transcendent Presence is God.

The General Processes of System 8

PPR8. AWAKENING.  Whereas normal Actualization Growth (PPR2) is the Process of changing and ‘metamorphosing’ from one Stage to the next, spiritual transcendence is the Process of Awakening to a truth that is unchanging and eternal [Wilber’s Waking Up].  Ex: “When I progress from childhood, to adolescence, to adulthood, I grow up.  When I progress from material preoccupations to spiritual clarity, I wake up.”  As we have seen, we awaken to the luminous glory of the Divine Presence (P7), by ascending through a series of States (D8) of illumination and revelation.  As we shall see, Awakening can be facilitated by Spiritual Practices (PR33) – sometimes with the assistance of a Spiritual Master (T7), in the supportive environment of a Meditation Center (T9).

[System 8 may use any of the 35 Specific Processes – but especially Spiritual Practices (PR33).  See Installment 3.]

The Togetherness of System 8

 [System 8 may use any of the 12 modes of Guidance & Orchestration – but especially the Spiritual Guide (T7) and the Meditation Center (T9a) below.  For all 12 modes, see Installment 3.]

T7: SPIRITUAL GUIDEA Spiritual Guide is a spiritual master, teacher, or pastor with extensive personal experience Awakening to the Divine Presence – often through meditation, prayer, yoga, Tantra, Qi Gong, or other spiritual practices.  A Spiritual Guide, with no pretensions to infallibility or godhood, is highly important for maintaining a consistent and diligent spiritual practice.  Ex: “I’m much more effective in my meditation and contemplation now that I practice Zazen under a wonderful Roshi.”  [Wilber appears to receive much of his Spiritual Guidance from Spiritual Authorities (T4) he has studied – Plotinus, Patanjali, Aurobindo, and others.]

T9: GROWTH CENTERS.  [Repeated from System 3 for clarity.  The Meditation Center (T9a) pertains especially to System 8.  The Growth Center per se (T9e) pertains especially to System 3.]  A Growth Center is a Holistic Growth Situation (T3) where people gather together with the explicit intent of cultivating a particular aspect of growth.  Over the course of centuries, at least five types of Growth Centers have developed:  T9a. The Monastery.  Comparable to the modern Church Community or Meditation Center; T9b. The School or University.  Currently, the creative grade school and the innovative liberal arts college; T9c. The Health Retreat.  At present often diminished to beauty spas and fat farms; T9d. The Intentional Community.  From Pilgrims, to Amish, to counter-culture communes; and T9e. The Growth Center per se.  Human Potential Growth Centers like Esalen Institute.

System 8 in a Nutshell: SPIRITUAL GROWTH

In Spiritual Growth, we ascend through higher States (D8) of our consciousness – whereby we become increasingly attuned to the Divine Presence (P7, T12).  In its Immanent form, the Divine Presence is the Core Self (P7a).  In its Transcendent form, the Divine Presence is the Witness (P7b).  Whereas ordinary growth is a process of change and Metamorphosis (PPR1-7), Spiritual Growth is a Process of Awakening (PPR8) to a truth that is unchanging and eternal.  Spritual Growth can be facilitated by Spiritual Practices (PR33) – sometimes with the assistance of a Spiritual Guide (T7) in the supportive environment of a Meditation Center (T9a).  Spiritual Growth occurs both with Individuals and Groups.  Even Spiritual Growth is subject to Impediments (D7) – a prime example being the Romantic Fallacy (D8a).

 

 

 

Appendix 5: THE ADAPT MODEL OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

This diagram displays the relationships among all the Domains, Systems, and major parameters of ADAPT. The four quadrants of the Diagram represent the four Domains; the eight concentric circles are the eight Systems of growth; the items within each circle are the parameters for that System; the items outside the circles pertain to all eight Systems.

As you study the Diagram, follow along in the description of the corresponding System.  Read the Diagram one circle at a time, beginning with the inmost circle (System 1).  Start with the upper-left Dimensions quadrant, and move clockwise through the Participants, Processes, and modes of Togetherness for each System of growth. 

This ADAPT Diagram is intentionally more complex and densely-packed than Ken Wilber’s elegant and famous circle diagram for AQAL.  That’s because our Diagram incorporates more than two dozen major parameters – all the factors necessary for a comprehensive and complete understanding of Human Development.  By contrast, Wilber’s AQAL diagram covers only the two parameters of Perspectives [Quadrants] and Stages [Levels].

 


Appendix 5: THE ADAPT MODEL OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT




Appendix 6: KEN WILBER’S ADAPT

Ken Wilber’s expanded Integral Operating System (IOS) is actually a highly-developed (though incomplete) version of the ADAPT Model.  To demonstrate this, we present the ADAPT Circle Diagram of Appendix 4, with Wilber’s parameters substituted for our own.  The close correspondence between the two models shows that ADAPT is in many ways an extension and completion of Wilber’s own work.  [Brackets indicate parameters that are implicit in Wilber.]

Appendix 6: KEN WILBER’S ADAPT